2021 expert insights News-EN Newsroom




The current scenario of Cyber Security is certainly worrying: cyber threats are constantly lurking and risks rise, also because of the constant spread of digital and IT devices.


While the potential attack surface we expose to cyber criminals increases, the Cyber Security jobs are becoming increasingly strategic.


In 2021, there are 3.5 million job vacancies globally in Cyber Security, a sector that grew by 350% from 2013 to 2021.


The unemployment rate in Cyber Security has been 0% since 2011.


Interesting premises, therefore.


But what are the most interesting jobs in this sector?


I selected five.


1) Ethical Hacker

The ethical hacker performs advanced penetration tests on a company’s computer systems to check if there are any weaknesses or breaches already in place.

The intervention of the ethical hacker is essential to prevent and mitigate all system vulnerabilities that could be exploited to violate or damage the company.

It is a role that allows you to fully understand how systems work and how criminals think.


2) Digital Forensics Analyst

The digital forensic analyst works closely with law enforcement to investigate cybercrime.

The forensic analyst is in fact able to collect evidence on digital devices (computer, smartphone, cloud), in order to determine what really happened.

Ideal if you have an investigative mindset, the chances of learning never end as technologies continually evolve.


3) Malware Analyst

The malware analyst studies malicious software in depth to understand the nature of the threat, its behaviour and purpose.

This function is very important because it allows a quick and effective response to contain an ongoing cyber attack or to understand what happened, in case of attacks that have already occurred, and prevent the problem from recurring.

The role of the malware analyst offers a great opportunity to hone your investigative skills by confronting cybercriminals who instead try to obfuscate their software threats as much as possible.


4) Cyber Security Manager

The Cyber Security Manager manages security systems and solutions projects that protect the resources and data of an organization.

Coordinating with other Cyber Security specialists, he verifies each phase of the project and ensures that the objectives are achieved on time and within budget as well as quality standards.

It is the perfect role to test your organizational and management skills, as well as your understanding of the dynamics of Cyber Security.


5) Chief Information Security Officer (CISO)

The CISO supervises and is responsible for the entire security strategy of an organization, effectively acting as a link between the technical department and the company’s managers.

This role requires excellent leadership qualities and a thorough understanding of an organization’s cyber security as well as business dynamics.

It is a senior position of great responsibility, which usually reports directly to the CEO of the company.


Therefore, not only technical roles, but also functions where organizational and management skills are important.


What are the main skills for Cyber Security then?


Technical skills (hard skills) first of all: the in-depth knowledge of the various operating systems and main applications, of computer networks, of programming languages (in particular scripting).


Based on the chosen area, specific skills will also be needed, from incident response to compliance.


But soft skills also have their relevance: organizational and managerial skills, analytical and deductive intellectual abilities, lateral thinking, problem solving attitude, attention to the details, team work predisposition, communication skills.


So how do you become an expert in Cyber Security?


If for the technical roles university is not ready to entirely prepare for all the Cyber Security roles, although it is rapidly catching up with vertical paths.


For non-technical roles, a degree in computer science or business management may be useful, as well as a master’s or professional certification in project management.


In general, certifications and specific courses can broaden skills and increase the chances of success.


But, above all, it is useful to acquire a lot of practice in the field and continuously update.


Good job!

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2021 expert insights News-EN Newsroom




Cyber attacks are always on the rise and they are growing not only in frequency but also in criticality.

In fact, cyber criminals continuously evolve their attack techniques, finding all the possible weaknesses of their victims or exploiting hot topics (as happened for the Covid-19 themed attacks at the beginning of the pandemic).

So what do Cyber Security and Digital Reputation have in common?

First of all, hiding a cyber attack becomes more difficult.

If it is not the company that admits it openly, in some cases, particularly in the case of ransomware, it is the criminal himself who communicates it on dedicated websites or even to journalists, in order to increase media pressure and multiply the chances of obtaining the payment of the ransom.

On one hand, we are now all more exposed to cyber attacks, and therefore the reputational damage due to the admission of having been victims of them is less than in the past.

But on the other hand, managing the emergency badly can have important repercussions.

Denying the attack and then colliding with the evidence, such as a data leak from the attacker, can be much worse.

Therefore, it is better to learn how to properly manage communications in the event of cyber attacks, rather than denying or taking time.

How then to prevent an attack?

As for prevention, however, things get complicated.

We are in fact exposed to different types of cyber attacks.

While most of the attacks (about 40%) are now perpetrated through Malware, and in particular Ransomware, a good part (about 25%) is carried out using techniques that remain unknown.

Furthermore, Vulnerabilities (known but also unknown, as in the case of 0day, or problems not yet in the public domain for which there is no patch to be applied to the systems) and techniques such as Phishing and Social Engineering continue to have some success.

But how to defend yourself?

In the case of generic Malware, antimalware solutions can offer an effective defense.

But, in the case of ransomware, the phenomenon of double extortion, i.e. the second ransom asked by criminals in order not to disclose stolen data before encrypting corporate systems, complicates things.

The choice for the victim is between paying a criminal or facing the media pillory for failing to adequately protect sensitive data entrusted to them.

To defend against known Vulnerabilities, the only solution is to periodically check the systems in search of problems or mis-configurations that must be found and resolved promptly.

The attack surface of a company can be very large and it would be good to carry out checks of this kind at least once a year, or even better, every 6 months.

Against Phishing and Social Engineering, on the other hand, we can find an effectively defense only through awareness courses for employees and collaborators.

In fact, by constantly refining their attack methods, criminals sometimes make it difficult to recognize threats.

Developing a cautious attitude, being aware of these types of risks and knowing the latest threat examples is the only effective way to decrease the success rate of these attacks.

Finally, it is important to understand that the threats are different, there is no single type of cyber attack.

Who are the victims?

In the same way, the victims are not all the same, but they differ by product sector, size, geographical distribution, attack surface.

For this reason, there cannot be a single universally valid solution, but the organizational and technological solutions must be targeted and customized in order to multiply their effectiveness.


Thanks to the cyber attack classification activity that Hackmanac has been carrying out for 10 years, we can help companies understand which threats they are most exposed to and how to optimize security budgets to manage them more effectively and cost-effectively.

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